An ionization chamber is an electrical device that detects various types of ionizing radiation. It consists of two charged electrodes that collect ions formed within their respective electric fields. The detector voltage is adjusted so that the conditions correspond to the ionization region, and the voltage is insufficient to cause gas amplification (secondary ionization).Ionization chambers are preferred for high radiation dose rates because they have no “dead time”, a phenomenon that affects the accuracy of the Geiger-Mueller tube at high dose rates. This is because there is no inherent signal amplification in the operating medium; therefore, these meters do not require much time to recover from large currents.
In addition, because there is no amplification, they provide excellent energy resolution, which is mainly limited by electronic noise. In an ionization chamber, two opposing electrodes are placed in a gas-filled container and a high voltage is applied. As charged particles (radiation) pass through the gas, gas molecules ionize to produce ions and electrons. For example, if the inner surface of the ionization chamber is coated with a thin layer of boron, the (n, alpha) reaction can occur. Therefore, a sufficient voltage of several tens to several hundred V is required in the ionization chamber. The alpha particle causes ionization inside the chamber, and the ejected electrons cause additional secondary ionizations.
A proportional counter is one in which the voltage in the ionization chamber increases above a certain level. Ionization chambers are widely used in the nuclear industry, as they provide an output proportional to the radiation dose. They find wide use in situations where a constant high dose rate is measured, as they have a longer service life than standard Geiger-Müller tubes. Devices that are designed for short-term measurements use a short-term electret and a short-term camera that incorporates a spring-loaded mechanism to expose the electret to the entire volume of the chamber at the time of placement. Therefore, ionization chambers can be used to detect gamma radiation and x-rays, collectively known as photons, and for this, the windowless tube is used. The electric field allows the ionization chamber to operate continuously by cleaning electrons, which can cause ion pair recombination, which can result in reduction of ion current.
With a large number of high-voltage power supplies that can be used for ionization chambers with low ripple, compact body and 0 to 1 kV ratings. With reference to the attached ion pair collection graph, it can be seen that in the operating region of the ion chamber, the charge of a collected ion pair is effectively constant over an applied voltage range since due to its relatively low electric field strength, the ion chamber has no multiplication effect. This makes the output signal in the ionization chamber a direct current, unlike the Geiger-Muller tube which produces a pulse output. A gas ionization chamber measures charge from the number of ion pairs created within a gas caused by incident radiation. An ionization chamber consists of a gas-filled cavity surrounded by two electrodes of opposite polarity and an electrometer. Ionization chambers have a uniform response to radiation over a wide range of energies and are the preferred means for measuring high levels of gamma radiation.